E-books and Programs for sale
Electroencephalography (EEG) is a study of the changing electrical potential of the brain. The aparatus used to measure this electric potential of the brain is called electroencephalograph, and the tracing or the printout of the measured brainwave forms is electroencephalogram.
Frequency is the number of complete repetitive waves that occur in a given unit of time. Frenquency is easured in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second (cps). According to their frequency brainwaves are devided into 4 main groups, also referred to as "brain states"
Some research has been done associated with the activities and benefits of other brainwave frequencies, such as Super Beta, Gamma, etc.
The lower your brainwave cps, the more your awareness is turned toward your subjective experience, toward your inner world and the more effectively are you able to use the power of your mind to create changes in your body. With each lower state you become more fully aligned with the source of power within you, with your unconscious, or if you prefer, with that part of you that is greater than you (your body).
Generally in while in the Beta state, your attention is focused outward. In alpha it begins to turn inward, and in theta and delta it goes further and further inward. The deeper you go, the more effectively are you able to enter your subconscious.
You can imagine that at the borderline between Beta and Alpha States is a doorway to your subconscious mind, and the doorway consists of what hypnosis refers to as your critical faculty.
You can imagine that at the borderline between Alpha and Theta states is a doorway to your superconscious mind, where you begin to gain access to your "supernatural abilities", which for most people manifest as bursts of insight. The more time you spend in this state, even if you're not intentionally attempting to create a change, the more these "abilities" begin to become part of you - you may firstly notice that the time-lag between what you think and it's manifestation in your outer world becomes shorter and shorter.
And you can imagine that at the borderline that between Theta and Delta, you're beginning to say "good-bye" to your physical experience of the world, as you're getting altogether into experiencing yourself as a non-physical being. Here your body is only a thought in your mind. If you are able to maintain your consciousness at this level, you can effect instant changes in the outer world. In this state, you can transcend the "laws of the physical world" because you're not bound by them any more.
Whenever you think, you expand energy. In the deep, dreamless Delta state, where your mind is fully resting, your body has the best opportunity to regenerate.
With meditative practice and
self hypnosis, you develop the ability to remain conscious while
getting progressively into deeper and deepr states. For example, a person
without any mind training will tend to fall asleep when getting into the
theta state, while a person who has undergone some form of meditative
mind-training will be able to be very deeply relaxed, yet conscious.
Brainwave Entrainment and Synchronization
techology provides a shortcut to experiencing deeper states of mind giving
you an opporunity to access higher states of consciousness and extraordinary
abilities in a very short time through brainwave entrainment. This way
you can experience almost immediately the effects that took someone years
of meditation to achieve.
Here's how the principle of entrainment works. Entrainment is the process of synchronization, where vibrations of one object will cause the vibrations of another object to oscillate at the same rate. External rhythms have a direct effect on the psychology and physiology of the individual.
You can observe these principles anywhere in nature as ultimately everything is made out of energy that resonates at a specific frequency. If you put several pendulum clocks on the wall and set them to swing at different rates, in time they will get synchronized, all of them swinging in unison. It has been noted thad women sleeping in the same dormitory whose menstral cycles would occur at different times of the month, would in time tend to synchronize their internal clocks to the same mensrtal cycle automatically. People who live together for many years, may even tend to look alike, as their energies are becoming synchronized. Another side effect would be increased telepathic ability between them - they'd just find that they would think the same thought at the same time, and perhaps surprise themselves by saying out loud the same word at the same time. In NLP, this entrainment with another person is often intentionally done through matching a breathing pattern.
The application of the principle of brainwave entrainment to alter states of mind is not new. Drumming and chanting have been used in different cultures to create rhythmic patterns which would stimulate altered states of consciousness .
With technology this process has gone digital through the use of binaural beats. This is accomplished by sending two different sounds (tones) to each ear through stereo headphones. The two hemispheres of the brain then work in unison to "hear" the third signal, which is not played, but rather produced as a result of the difference in frequency between the two beats that are heard. Sending specific frequencies to each ear entrains the brain to enter effortlessly into a specific state of mind.
the left ear is presented with a steady tone of 400Hz and the right ear
a steady tone of 407Hz, these two tones combine in the brain. The difference,
7Hz, is perceived by the brain and is a very effective stimulus for brainwave
entrainment. This 7Hz is formed entirely by the brain. When using stereo
headphones, the left and right sounds do not mix together until in your
brain. The frequency difference, when perceived by brain this way, is
called a binaural beat.
from Research on the Influence of Brain Wave Synchronization
Originally Published: J Neurol
Orthop Med Surg (1996) 17:32-34, The Journal of Neurological and Orthopaedic
Medicine and Surgery, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1996
Although it has been known since
shortly after the development of the EEG that brain wave activity "follows"
repetitive light and sound frequencies', and experiments using brain wave
synchronization (BOOS) as a tool to assist in relaxation and induction
of the focused state of hypnosis were done as early as 1948,
the first brain wave synchronizer (BOOS) was introduced commercially in
1958 by Sidney A. Schneider.
The editor of HYPNOSIS QUARTERLY reported rapid induction of a deep trance in a previously unhypnotizable subject using BOOS, to the depth of cataplexy, analgesia and amnesia3.
The JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION in March, 1959, mentioned the "hypnosis machine" which could be used to speed up hypnotic induction and to "help make labor and delivery a more gratifying experience by reducing discomfort and the need for excessive analgesia and anesthesia."4
In June 1966, Bernard S. Margolis, D.D.S.5, reported the BWS was "a valuable tool for allaying fears and apprehensions," and noted that coupled with hypnosis -
1. Patients required less
Dr. William A. Phillips reported "the reduction and control of high blood pressure of inorganic origin," with reduction of 10 to 40 mm. of Mercury, using only BWS without verbal hypnotic suggestion6. And Sadove emphasized the use of BWS to assist relaxation7.
Comparisons were made between cranial electrical stimulation (The Pain SuppressorO), several different models of light frequency BOOS, the brainwave synchronization tapes, and self hypnosis audiotapes.
Patients were asked to grade their depth of relaxation and intensity of pain before and after 30 minutes of synchronization. Blood pressure and pulse measurements were also done before and after BOOS.
More recently we have also measured blood neurochemicals (NE, MEL, BE, ST, and CHE) before and after brain Shealy RelaxMate indicate: wave synchronization coupled with the self hypnosis audiotape in eight individuals.
With brainwave synchronization tapes alone or self hypnotic tapes alone, depths of relaxation were similar. Relaxation music and cranial electrical stimulation were slightly less effective than BWS (50% to 60% relaxation usually).
When brainwave stimulation
was combined with self hypnosis tapes, consistent relaxation
depths of 70% to 100% were reported.
In eight individuals, blood neurochemicals have been measured before and after 30 minutes of alpha rhythm (10 Hz) BOOS. Melatonin has been reduced 5% to 20% (average 6% decrease) and beta endorphin has been increased 10% to 50% (average 14% increase). Interestingly, these same individuals have an average increase in serotonin of 23% and an increase of norepinephrine by 18%.
Our experience with BWS coupled with guided mental relaxation exercises (BWS/SH) confirm Schneider's reports that at least 90% of individuals achieve deepened levels of focused relaxation with those techniques. Our results are also compatible with those of Benson and others who indicated that the relaxation response is a major stress reducer and assists the process of homeostasis'°.
The increase in beta endorphins after BWS/SH is associated with a sense of well-being and decreased pain. Even though blood pressure and pulse usually decrease with BWS/SH, the increases in norepinephrine and serotonin and the decrease in melatonin suggest an increased level of alertness. This may well be consistent with Schultz's description of poised alertness reported with autogenic training". Decreases in melatonin, as found, are to be expected with exposure to light and suggest that BSW may be useful for seasonal affective disorders.
It is interesting to speculate that various BWS rates might affect neurochemicals differently. Since most individuals choose the lowest theta rates, those rates might increase beta endorphins more without the increases in norepinephrine and/or serotonin. Further study needs to be done to elucidate potential differences. It has been noted that BWS for greater than 40 minutes often leaves individuals feeling groggy instead of alert immediately after a session. Thus, we recommend 15 minute sessions most of the time. Benson reported that two daily 20 minute deep relaxation sessions led to decreased insulin requirements and catecholamine production for up to 24 hours.
Finally, we have noted that BWS even without self hypnosis leads to enhanced sleep induction, especially at the selfselected low theta rate. And return to sleep is more rapid with BWS if one awakens during the night and uses BWS to return to sleep.
beats are auditory brainstem responses which originate in the superior
olivary nucleus of each hemisphere. They result from the interaction of
two different auditory impulses, originating in opposite ears, below 1000
Hz and which differ in frequency between one and 30 Hz (Oster, 1973).
For example, if a pure tone of 400 Hz is presented to the right ear and
a pure tone of 410 Hz is presented simultaneously to the left ear, an
amplitude modulated standing wave of 10 Hz, the difference between the
two tones, is experienced as the two wave forms mesh in and out of phase
within the superior olivary nuclei. This binaural beat is not heard in
the ordinary sense of the word (the human range of hearing is from 20-20,000
Hz). It is perceived as an auditory beat and theoretically can be used
to entrain specific neural rhythms through
Uses of audio with embedded binaural beats that are mixed with music or various pink or background sound are diverse. They range from relaxation, meditation, stress reduction, pain management, improved sleep quality, decrease in sleep requirements, super learning, enhanced creativity and intuition, remote viewing, telepathy, and out-of-body experience and lucid dreaming. Audio embedded with binaural beats is often combined with various meditation techniques, as well as positive affirmations and visualization.
When signals of two different frequencies are presented, one to each ear, the brain detects phase differences between these signals. "Under natural circumstances a detected phase difference would provide directional information. The brain processes this anomalous information differently when these phase differences are heard with stereo headphones or speakers. A perceptual integration of the two signals takes place, producing the sensation of a third "beat" frequency. The difference between the signals waxes and wanes as the two different input frequencies mesh in and out of phase. As a result of these constantly increasing and decreasing differences, an amplitude-modulated standing wave -the binaural beat- is heard. The binaural beat is perceived as a fluctuating rhythm at the frequency of the difference between the two auditory inputs. Evidence suggests that the binaural beats are generated in the brainstem’s superior olivary nucleus, the first site of contralateral integration in the auditory system (Oster, 1973). Studies also suggest that the frequency-following response originates from the inferior colliculus (Smith, Marsh, & Brown, 1975)" (Owens & Atwater, 1995). This activity is conducted to the cortex where it can be recorded by scalp electrodes.
beats can easily be heard at the low frequencies (< 30 Hz) that are
characteristic of the EEG spectrum (Oster, 1973). This perceptual phenomenon
There have been numerous anecdotal reports and a growing number of research efforts reporting changes in consciousness associated with binaural-beats. "The subjective effect of listening to binaural beats may be relaxing or stimulating, depending on the frequency of the binaural-beat stimulation" (Owens & Atwater, 1995).
Binaural beats in the delta (1 to 4 Hz) and theta (4 to 8 Hz) ranges
listening to binaural beats may not spontaneously propel you into
Brain Waves and Consciousness
concerning the brain, mind, and consciousness have existed
neurologists have located the mind in the brain and have said that consciousness
is the result of electrochemical neurological activity.
resolution to the controversies surrounding the higher mind and consciousness
and the mind-body problem in general may need to involve an epistemological
shift to include extra-rational ways of knowing (de Quincey, 1994) and
cannot be comprehended by neurochemical brain studies alone. We are in
the midst of a revolution focusing on the study of consciousness (Owens,
1995). Penfield, an eminent contemporary neurophysiologist, found that
the human mind continued to work in spite of the brain’s reduced
mind-consciousness is not the brain, why then does science relate
to the second question raised in the above paragraph, audio with
Synchronized brain waves
brain waves have long been associated with meditative
Rhythmic Sound and the Brain
have shown that vibrations from rhythmic sounds have a
pattern studies conducted by researcher Melinda Maxfield into the
If your experience with hypnosis is limited or you simply want to accelerate the effectiveness of your hypnosis sessions, and improve your life beyond perceptible measures, just click the link below for your free demonstration with this new state of the art program.
A look at the brain of a Somnambulist
Other Research on Brainwave Synchronization
Adams, H. B. (1965). A case utilizing sensory deprivation procedures. In L. P. Ullman & L. Krasner (Eds.), Case Studies in Behavior Modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Adrian, E. D. & Yamagiwa, K. (1935). "The origin of the Berger Rhythm." Brain, 58, 323-351.
Atwater, F. H. (1988). "The Monroe Institute's Hemisync process: A Theoretical Perspective." Faber, Va: Monroe Institute.
Bandler, R. (1985). "Using Your Brain--For a Change." Moab, UT: Real People Press.
Barber, T. X. (1957). "Experiments in hypnosis." Scientific American, 196, 54-61.
Bremer, F. (1958a). "Physiology of the corpus callosum." Proceedings of the Association of Research on Nervous Disorders, 36, 424-448.
Bermer, F. (1958b). "Cerebral and cerebellar potentials." Physiological Review, 38, 357-388.
Brackopp, G. W. (1984). Review of research on Multi-Modal sensory stimulation with clinical implications and research proposals. Unpublished manuscript--see Hutchison (1986).
Budzynski, T. (1973). "Some applications of biofeedback-produced twilight states." In D. Shapiro, et al (Eds.), Biofeedback and Self-Control: 1972. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.
Budzynski, T. H. (1976). "Biofeedback and the twilight states of consciousness." In G. E. Schwartz and D. Shapiro (Eds.), Consciousness and Self-Regulation, Vol. 1, New York: Plenum Press.
Budzynski, T. H. (1977). "Tuning in on the twilight zone." Psychology Today, August.
Budzynski, T. H. (1979). "Brain lateralization and biofeedback." In B. Shapin & T. Coly (Eds.), Brain/Mind and Parapsychology. New York: Parapsychology Foundation.
Budzynski, T. H. (1981). "Brain lateralization and rescripting." Somatics, 3, 1-10.
Budzynski, T. H. (1986). "Clinical applications of non-drug-induced states." In B. Wolman & M. Ullman (Eds.), Handbook of States of Consciousness. New York: Van Nostrand-Reinhold.
Budzynski, T. H. (1990) "Hemispheric asymmetry and REST." In Suefeld, P. Turner, J. W., Jr. & Fine, T. H. (Eds.), Restricted Environmental Stimulation, New York: Springer-Verlag.
Cade, C. M. & Coxhead, N. (1979) "The Awakened Mind: Biofeedback and the Development of Higher States of Consciousness." New York: Delacorte Press.
Cheek, D. (1976). "Short-term hypnotherapy for fragility using exploration of early life attitudes." The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 18, 75-82.
Davidson, R. J., Ekman, P., Saron, C. D., Senulis, J. A., & Friesen, W. V. (1990). "Approach-withdrawal and cerebral asymmetry: Emotional expression and brain physiology." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 330-341.
Deikman, A. (1969). "De-automatization and the mystic experience." In C. T. Tart (Ed.), Altered States of Consciousness. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Deikman, A. (1971). "Bimodal consciousness." Archives of General Psychiatry, 25, 481-489.
Donker, D. N. J., Nijo, L., Storm Van Leeuwen, W. & Wienke, G. (1978). "Interhemispheric relationships of responses to sine wave modulated light in normal subjects and patients." Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 44, 479-489.
Evans, F. J., Gustafson, L. A., O'Connell, D. N., Orne, M. T. & Shor, R. E. (1966). "Response during sleep with intervening waking amnesia." Science, 152, 666-667.
Evans, F. J., Gustafson, L. A., O'Connell, D. N., Orne, M. T. & Shor, R. E. (1970). "Verbally-induced behavioral response during sleep." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1, 1-26.
Evans, C. & Richardson, P. H. (1988) "Improved recovery and reduced postoperative stay after therapeutic suggestions during gneeral anaesthetic." Lancet, 2, 491.
Felipe, A. (1965). "Attitude change during interrupted sleep." Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Yale University.
Foster, D. S. (1990) "EEG and subjective correlates of alpha frequency binaural beats stimulation combined with alpha biofeedback." Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, Order No. 9025506.
Foulkes, D. & Vogel, G. (1964). "Mental activity at sleep-onset." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 70, 231-243.
Glicksohn, J. (1986). "Photic driving and altered states of consciousness: An exploratory study." Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 6, 167-182.
Green, E. E., Green, A. M. (1971). "On the meaning of the transpersonal: Some metaphysical perspectives." Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 3, 27-46.
Green, E. E., & Green, A. M. (1986). "Biofeedback and States of Consciousness." In B. B. Wolman & M. Ullman (Eds.). Handbook of States of Consciousness. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Harding, G. F. & Dimitrakoudi, M. (1977). "The visual evoked potential in photosensitive epilepsy." In J. E. Desmedt (Ed.), Visual Evoked Potentials in Man: New Developments. Oxford: Clarendon.
Henriques, J. B. & Davidson, R. J. (1990). "Regional brain electrical asymmetries discriminate between previously depressed and healthy control subjects." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 22-31.
Hoovey, Z. B., Heinemann, U. & Creutzfeldt, O. D. (1972). "Inter-hemispheric 'synchrony' of alpha waves." Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 32, 337-347.
Hutchison, M. (1986). Megabrain. New York: Beech Tree Books. William Morrow.
Hutchison, M. (1990). "Special issue on sound/light." Megabrain Report: Vol 1, No. 2.
Iamblichus. "The epistle of Porphyry to the Egyptian Anebo." In Iamblichus on the Mysteries of the Egyptians, Chaldeans, and Assyrians. Trans. by Taylor, T. London: B. Dobell, and Reeves & Turner, 1895.
Janet, P. (1889). L'Automatisme Psychologique. Paris: Alcan.
Koestler, A. (1981). The Act of Creation. London: Pan Books.
Kooi, K. A. (1971). Fundamentals of Electroencephalography. New York: Harper & Row.
Kubie, L. (1943). "The use of induced hypnagogic reveries in the recovery of repressed amnesic data." Bull. Menninger Clinic, 7, 172-182.
Lankton, S. R., & Lankton, C. H. (1983). The Answer Within: A Clinical Framework of Ericksonian Hypnotherapy. New York: Bruner/Mazel.
Leman, K. & Carlson, R. (1989). Unlocking the Secrets of Your Childhood Memories. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
Lilly, J. C. (1972)). Programming and Metaprogramming in the Human Biocomputer. New York: Julian.
Lubar, J. F. (1989). "Electroencephalographic biofeedback and neurological applications." In J. V. Basmajian (Ed.), Biofeedback: Principles and Practice, New York: Williams & Wilkins.
Mavromatis, A. Hypnagogia: The Unique State of Consciousness Between Wakefulness and Sleep. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987.
Miller, E. E. (1987). Software
for the Mind: How to program Your Mind for Optimum Health and Performance.
Moscu, K. I. & Vranceanu, M. (1970). "Quelques resultats concernant l'action differentielle des mots affectogenes et nonaffectogenes pendant le somneil naturel." In M. Bertini (Ed.), Psicofisiologia del Sonno e del Sogno. Milan: Editrice Vita e Pensiero.
Moses, R. A. (1970). Adler's Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Applications. St. Louis: Mosby.
Nemiah, J. C. (1984). The unconscious and psychopathology. In S., & Meichenbaum, D. New York: John WIley & Sons, pp. 49-87.
Oster, G. (1973). "Auditory beats in the brain." Scientific American, 229, 94-102.
Peniston, E. G. & Kulkowski, P. J. (1989). "Alpha-Theta brainwave training and B-endorphin levels in alcoholics." Alcoholism, 13, 271-279.
Richardson, A. & McAndres, F. (1990) "The effects of photic stimulation and private self-consciousness on the complexity of visual imagination imagery." British Journal of Psychology, 81, 381-394.
Rossi, E. L. (1986). The Psychobiology of Mind-Body Healing. New York: W. W. Norton.
Rubin, F. (1968). (Ed.), Current Research in Hypnopaedia. London: MacDonald.
Rubin, F. (1970). "Learning and sleep." Nature, 226, 447.
Schacter, D. L. (1977). "EEG theta waves and psychological phenomena: A review and analysis." Psychology, 5, 47-82.
Schultz, J. & Luthe, W. (1959). Autogenic Training: A Psychophysiological Approach in Psychotherapy. New York: Grune & Stratton.
Sittenfeld, P., Budzynski, T. & Stoyva, J. (1976). "Differential shaping of EEG Theta rhythms." Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1, 31-45.
Stoyva, J. M. (1973), "Biofeedback techniques and the conditions for hallucinatory activity" In McGulgan, F. J. and Schoonover, R. (Eds), The Psychophysiology of Thinking. New York: Academic Press.
Svyandoshch, A. (1968). "The assimilation and memorization of speech during natural sleep." In F. Rubin (Ed.), Current Research in Hypnopaedia. London: MacDonald.
Swedenborg, E. Rational Psychology. Philadelphia: Swedenborg Scientific Association, 1950.
Tomarken, A. J., Davidson, R. J., & Henriques, J. B. (1990). "Resting frontal brain asymmetry predicts affective responses to films." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 791-801.
Townsend, R. E. (1973). "A device for generation and presentation of modulated light stimuli." Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 34, 97-99.
Tucker, D. M. (1981). "Lateral brain function, emotion, and conceptualization." Psychological Bulletin, 89, 19-46.
Van der Tweel, L. H. & Verduyn Lunel, H. F. E. (1965). "Human visual responses to sinusoidally modulated light." Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurology, 18, 587-598.
Van Dusen, W. (1975). The Presence of Other Worlds. London: Wildwood House.
Walter, V. J. & Walter, W. G. (1949). "The central effects of rhythmic sensory stimulation." Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1, 57-86.
Wickramasekera, I. E. (1988). Clinical Behavioral Medicine: Some Concepts and Procedures. New York: Plenum Press.